Thursday, September 13, 2012

Capitalizing Anti-Communism


© 2005 by Linda Minor
(Updated in 2010)
Credit to Vanity Fair

The havoc caused by just these 16 words:
"The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa.”

President George W. Bush used just sixteen words (quoted above) in his State of the Union Message in January 2003 to justify his military attack on Iraq. It took six months for Ambassador Joseph Wilson to contradict those words in the public media — averring in a July 6, 2003 New York Times op-ed piece (“What I Didn’t Find in Africa”) that the Bush administration knew, or should have known, almost a year before his January speech that any report claiming that Saddam had obtained uranium from Niger in a quantity capable of using for weapons of mass destruction was a bald-faced lie. [1]

Dementia Admitted
Being called liars by Wilson came as quite a shock to the Bush administration—representing as it did the first time anyone with clout had publicly questioned the veracity of the reason given for precipitating the war in Iraq. Having been an ambassador in Africa (a Bush I appointee) and an envoy in Niger (for the Clinton National Security Council) until 1998, Wilson then returned to Niger early in 2002 at the request of CIA officials to whom Vice President Dick Cheney had posed a question regarding Saddam's access to nuclear weapons.
Deputy National Security Adviser Stephen Hadley, admitted two weeks after Wilson’s article in the Times that he should have deleted the “sixteen words” from Bush’s January speech because, as he later recalled, CIA Director George Tenet had  asked him to do so for a speech Bush gave in Ohio three months before the January speech..But, Hadley explained, he had “forgotten” Tenet’s warning during the intervening time.. 

Hadley’s boss, Condoleezza Rice, claiming the same amnesiatic excuse and sounding like a ditzy California valley girl, stated: 
“What we learned later (and I did not know at the time, and certainly did not know until just before Steve Hadley went out to say what he said last week) was that the director [Tenet] had also sent over to the White House a set of clearance comments that explained why he wanted this out of the speech.  I can tell you, I either didn’t see the memo, or I don’t remember seeing the memo.”  [2]
All that was missing was for Condi to have punctuated her statement with a couple of sideways head nods, a "duh," and perhaps to sprinkle in a "like" or two throughout her sentences.

While the Bush officials were thus admitting their dementia, Robert Novak, in his July 14 syndicated column—citing “two senior administration officials” as his sources—identified Valerie Plame, wife of their only accuser, as a Central Intelligence Agency operative who had worked in the area of weapons of mass destruction. [3]

Senior Administration Officials Spring Leaks
Wilson immediately jumped to the core of the matter, speculating as to the identity of these "senior officials":
“Senior advisers close to the president may well have been clever enough to have used others to do the actual leaking, in order to keep their fingerprints off the crime. John Hannah and David Wurmser, mid-level political appointees in the vice president’s office, have both been suggested as sources of the leaks. I don’t know either, though at the time of the leak, Wurmser, a prominent neoconservative, was working as a special assistant to John Bolton at the State Department. Mid-level officials, however, do not leak information without authority from a higher level.” [4]
Calling them "zealots," and part of a "government cult," Wilson traced the roots back to Albert and Roberta Morgan Wohlstetter of the University of Chicago— mentors both to Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle. The ultimate mission in Iraq, he revealed, "was always about a larger neoconservative agenda of projecting force as the means of imposing solutions." Roberta Mary Morgan's father, Edmund M. Morgan, Jr., a law professor at Yale in 1920, was later a Harvard Law colleague of Felix Frankfurter.

Extremism in the Defense of Liberty 
John Robert Bolton II, like many of his College Republican counterparts, became a Republican almost before he could tie his shoes, though he was not a member of the College Republican National Committee.[5]  Young Johnny was instead active in the Young Republican organization at Yale for four years—1966 to 1970.  He had cut his teeth, however, in the 1964 Goldwater campaign at his prep school in Baltimore—the McDonogh School—where he was awarded one of the scholarships to poor (in the financial sense) students for whose education the school was originally created. In 1964, when John Bolton was sixteen years old and his peers were thinking about girls, cars, football or baseball, Johnny was meditating upon Barry Goldwater’s classic statement: 
“I would remind you that extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice! And let me remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue."
Bolton would never thereafter be ascribed with the virtue of moderation. The vice of extremism is another matter.

Bolton fit the profile which the College Republican (CR) organization was seeking. Led by Morton Blackwell, CR was recruiting young political operatives in 1971, while Blackwell's fellow Virginia attorney, Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. (later appointed to the Supreme Court), was writing in his “Confidential Memorandum: Attack on American Free Enterprise System,” addressed to his next-door neighbor, Eugene Sydnor (then in charge of the education committee for the U.S. Chamber of Commerce [6]) that the immediate goal of recruitment was to ascertain “avenues of action” which could be pursued to correct the “imbalance” on campus and the public at large in order to save the free enterprise system. [7]

Pendulum Swings to the Right
Morton Blackwell, mentor for the College Republican organization, was trained by Tea Party hero, Richard Viguerie, who as a young man in his twenties, earned his living working for Young Americans for Freedom (YAF)—founded in 1960 by William F. Buckley, Jr. (Yale, Skull and Bones, 1950). Buckley had previously served as a Central Intelligence Agency operative in Tokyo and Mexico City. [8]

Though Buckley’s National Review claimed to be the voice of proponents for free enterprise, evaluated on that basis alone, it was 
a dud.
Since free enterprise operates on the profit motive, we have to assume that, since it continued to operate without profit, it was being subsidized by someone or something. 

Buckley started the magazine with $125,000 from his family and $300,000 “raised elsewhere.” [10]  Who was paying Buckley to run this right-wing rag so soon after his book God and Man at Yale had attacked the so-called leftist administration and faculty at Yale?

In 1951 fellow Bonesman McGeorge Bundy “gleefully accepted an assignment from The Atlantic Monthly to attack William F. Buckley’s God and Man at Yale. Buckley, Bundy charged, was a ‘twisted and ignorant young man.’ Buckley, in turn, ridiculed Bundy as a ‘haughty totalitarian’ and a ‘Court Hatchet-Man.’” [11] Skull and Bones men must have been delighted to witness the Hegelian dialectic at work and play.

Skull and Bones at Play?
Equally as intriguing as Buckley’s ability to continue such a money-losing operation for so long is the list of names he attracted to serve on the board of YAF. Ronald Reagan was on the YAF’s national advisory board in 1962, and retired Major General Charles A. Willoughby was there by 1963. 
Willoughby, whose German birth and parentage are shrouded in ambiguity, enlisted in the Army as Adolf Charles Weidenbach, then changed his surname to Willoughby in 1910. [12] He served as General MacArthur's Chief of Intelligence in the General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area for the decade beginning 1941 and later joined the International Committee for the Defense of Christian Culture (ICDCC), a major funder of which was Nelson Bunker Hunt, son of Texan H.L. Hunt, who had been Willoughby’s friend since the 1950’s. [13]

Direct mail was a part of the advertising and public relations industry, and Viguerie was therefore working for these right-wing idealogues on YAF's board while he handled mail order operations. They sent mailings and fundraising letters out to the mailing list, hoping either to convince Americans of the need to pursue the cold war militarism against Communism in the Soviet Union and China or to raise funds for candidates. In 1964 Viguerie began his own direct-mail company, using the YAF and Goldwater’s mailing lists. Long before personal computers, iPhones or bloggers, he taught Morton Blackwell how to do direct mail and to train others under the auspices of the College Republican National Committee. Once Ronald Reagan was inaugurated, Morton Blackwell had a White House office as “liaison with conservative groups.[14]  

Such conservative groups included the National Conservative Political Action Committee, whose director—one of Blackwell’s College Republican trainees, John T. "Terry" Dolan—poured more than $7 million into Republican campaign coffers in 1980. [15] That was a lot of money in those days. Where did it really come from?  Could “direct mail” have been a cover for laundering illicit funds through the intricate layers of political action committees set up to flaunt the spirit of campaign finance legislation?  That’s a subject for further research. 

World Anti-Communist League
What our research to date does reveal, however, is that the career of Richard Viguerie—described in Time magazine as a “direct-mail conglomerateur” in Falls Church, Virginia (who, like Buckley at National Review, could afford to operate his monthly Conservative Digest at more than a million dollar per year loss) had suspicious connections early on to the World Anti-Communist League. [16] One time editor at Conservative Digest was Lee Edwards, who
“had a practice of starting up organizations like the ‘Underground Bible Fund’ or ‘Friends of the FBI,’ which were very good at soliciting donations but not so good at actually fulfilling their promises to distribute Bibles behind the Iron Curtain or defend the good name of J. Edgar Hoover.” 
In 1970 Edwards had also set up the first United States affiliate of the World Anti-Communist League called the “American Council for World Freedom.”  Edwards’ activities were mentioned in a book by another member of the New Right, Alan Crawford as follows: 
Then there is Lee Edwards, once a Young Americans for Freedom activist, the first editor of Viguerie’s Conservative Digest. When the Justice Department brought suit against the American-Chilean Council in 1978, it came out that one of the organization's activities had been to plant material favorable to the Pinochet government of Chile with Edwards, then a Washington-based public relations man, who writes and distributes his own newspaper column. Edwards included the information in his newspaper articles. The accomplishment was reported back to the Chileans by the Washington officer of the American-Chilean Council, L. Francis Bouchey, another product of Young Americans for Freedom, who had shared office space with Edwards back in 1975 when Edwards was working closely with representatives of the Taiwan government. (p. 197) [17]
Another book, Inside the League, written in 1986, described Edwards’ associates as neo-Nazis:
Bankrolling themselves by running “charities” with exorbitant operating costs, they sought out others who shared their apocalyptic vision of the takeover of the world by communists and their “fellow travellers,” whether in the American Independent Party or in the World Anti-Communist League. Today Edwards is president of the Center for International Relations, a conservative think tank funded by the Reagan Administration.... With the resignation of the American Council for World Freedom in 1975, the door was open for an energetic neo-Nazi to transform the face of the League in the United States and Europe, plunging it even further into the depths of fanaticism. [18]


[1] Joseph Wilson, The Politics of Truth: Inside the Lies that Led to War and Betrayed My Wife’s CIA Identity (Carroll & Graf,  2004),  p. 1.  The July 6 New York Times article appears at the Common Dreams News Center website.

[2] Wilson, The Politics of Truth, p. 353.

[3] Novak stated: “Two senior administration officials told me Wilson's wife suggested sending him to Niger to investigate the Italian report. The CIA says its counter-proliferation officials selected Wilson and asked his wife to contact him.... All this was forgotten until reporter Walter Pincus revealed in the Washington Post June 12 that an unnamed retired diplomat had given the CIA a negative report. Not until Wilson went public on July 6, however, did his finding ignite the firestorm.”

[4] Wilson, The Politics of Truth, p. 445.

[5] We saw in a recent Sanders Research article, “Killer Political Instincts,” that while Karl Rove was in high school in Utah he was working on the campaign of Republican Senator Wallace Bennett, whose son controlled a public relations firm that employed career intelligence operatives who were hired to re-elect Richard Nixon.  The article also mentioned that Rove’s recruiters, the College Republican National Committee, also trained Ralph Reed, Terry Dolan, Roger Stone, Grover Norquist, Lee Atwater, and Jack Abramoff (Tom Delay’s fund-raiser recently indicted for dirty tricks)—indoctrinating them into their future roles in political consulting and mail-order to elect extreme right wing candidates.

[6] The Chamber of Commerce was a pro-business lobby founded by Skull and Bones member, William Howard Taft in 1911 with a mission to create a “social system based on individual freedom, incentive, initiative, opportunity, and responsibility." Chamber history, according to its website. The quote was attributed to Taft in a press release dated April 22, 2002 and is now the Chamber's Mission Statement.

[7] Before being named to the Supreme Court by President Nixon, Powell had served on a “Blue Ribbon Defense Panel” chaired by Gilbert W. Fitzhugh, Board Chairman of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, which had made recommendations for restructuring military procurement procedures, as well as intelligence resources.  Powell’s memo is reminiscent of how Skull and Bones at Yale began in 1832 to take control of every facet of America’s established institutions.  See Antony C. Sutton, America’s Secret Establishment (1986).

[8]  Dick Russell, The Man Who Knew Too Much p. 191.

[9] Time, Oct. 31, 1960.

[10] Time, Nov. 3, 1967.

[11]  Alfred S. Regnery, Upstream: the ascendance of American conservatism, Volume 2007 (Simon and Schuster, Inc.  2008), p. 50.

[12] Frank Kluckhohn, The Reporter (New York Journal) August 19, 1952.  In 1913, “having reached the rank of sergeant, he left the service to enter the senior class of Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania. Graduated from Gettysburg, he studied for an M.A. at the University of Kansas at Lawrence and then taught languages at the Howe School for girls, in Howe, Indiana, and at Racine College in Wisconsin. Then in 1916 he re-entered the Army and was commissioned a second lieutenant of infantry. He served on the Mexican border and later was sent to France, where he took aviation training, flew as a pursuit pilot, and helped train Allied fliers.”  While in Manila, “Willoughby became known as the close friend of Andres Soriano, the Spanish Club's most influential member and one of the richest men in the Philippines.... Soriano was not only Willoughby's friend; he was also the good friend of General MacArthur and of another principal MacArthur assistant, Major General Courtney Whitney, who before the war was a lawyer and promoter in Manila. Soriano had—and still has—mining interests, breweries, airlines, shipping, radio stations, textiles, jute plants, and the Philippine concessions for the products of many great American firms.”

[13] Dick Russell, p. 322.

[14] Time, July 5, 1982.

[15] Terry’s brother Anthony, incidentally, was a Reagan speechwriter.  Dolan’s name had been first mentioned in Time in 1979. 

[16] Time, December 8, 1961.   

[17] Crawford’s book is called Thunder on the Right.  A review appears in an article written by  Corey Panshin.

[18] Scott Anderson and Jon Lee Anderson, Inside the League: The Shocking Expose of How Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American Death Squads Have Infiltrated the World Anti-Communist League  (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1986).  The connection between Viguerie, Rev. Billy James Hargis, the John Birch Society, and Buckley’s YAF was hinted at by the authors:  “The first American League Chapter was the American Council for World Freedom (ACWF), founded in 1970 in Washington, D.C. The main force behind its creation, and its first secretary, was Lee Edwards, head of a public relations firm and former director of Young Americans for Freedom, the youth arm of the John Birch Society.  Edwards was a stalwart of the emergent New Right in American politics and brought his own questionable background and motives into the World Anti-Communist League as a professional fund-raiser. Along with a handful of other New Right fund-raisers such as Richard Viguerie and Patrick Gorman, Edwards was in the business of raising donations for charitable or nonprofit organizations and then keeping a large chunk of the 'money, sometimes over ninety percent, for his ‘operation expenses.’ ”

Tuesday, September 11, 2012

The Arithmetic Doesn't Add Up to Democracy

The Existing Order

© Oct. 16, 2009 by  LINDA MINOR
(all rights reserved)

“That an Anglo-American alliance is well calculated to support the existing order throughout the world, even at the expense of democracy against Fascism, should … give pause to anyone who calculates that Montagu Norman + J. P. Morgan = democracy.” (1)

Plot and counterplot

In 1934 General Smedley Darlington Butler, a career Marine, became whistleblower to one of the strangest plots in American history when he testified before the Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities about a series of meetings with mysterious American businessmen and bond brokers who selected him to  serve in a capacity they termed “assistant President”--an honorary position for a  military straw man to represent the views of America's World War I disgruntled veterans who, many bankers feared, were in danger of organizing a revolution against capitalism.
Butler described numerous cat-and-mouse assignations with a broker named Gerald C. MacGuire. Once he determined to his own satisfaction that something was amiss, he blew the whistle on their charade and went public, revealing the all-consuming fear of the erstwhile conspirators that one of two options was about to occur, neither of which was desirable:
  • That the wealthy class would either be forced to pay higher taxes to support Roosevelt’s welfare programs; or
  • That Roosevelt would change the government’s economic system completely from capitalism to socialism.
MacGuire's henchman, Robert Sterling Clark, denied, when queried by Butler, any evil motives against FDR on the part of his clique, declaring:

"This is to sustain him when others assault him…. You know, the President is weak. He will come right along with us. He was born in this class. He was raised in this class, and he will come back. He will run true to form. In the end he will come around. But we have got to be prepared to sustain him when he does."(2)

Further questioning by General Butler, who played along with the game, elicited from MacGuire the following dialogue:
“We might have an assistant President, somebody to take the blame; and if things do not work out, he can drop him…. That is what he was building up Hugh Johnson (FDR's National Recovery Administration czar) for. Hugh Johnson talked too damn much and got him into a hole, and he is going to fire him in the next three or four weeks.”
[Butler] said, “How do you know all this?”
“Oh,” he said, “we are in with him all the time. We know what is going to happen.” (3)
Butler realized very quickly that the schemers were privy to highly confidential inside information from the centers of power. Everything they predicted shortly came to pass. However, if General Johnson was a disappointment to those who selected him, their choice of General Butler was about to become a disaster.

Identifying the true racketeers

General Butler was loved and admired by the soldiers he led. He identified with them, and he freely placed the blame for the wars in which he had served throughout his career on the class he felt was responsible for those wars—the bankers and businessmen whose fat he, as a career soldier, had often pulled from the fire.

Who were these plotters? Jules Archer in his 1973 book called The Plot to Seize the White House (5) did not speculate about the men who pulled the strings behind the scenes, though he accurately described the scenario that played out on the public stage.  

We know the names of at least two of those puppeteers working behind the scenes -- Grayson Mallet-Prevost Murphy, a "Manhattan private-banker," and Robert Sterling Clark, a scion of the Singer Sewing Machine Co. fortune--though their names are virtually unknown today. Research into their family history and business relationships clearly reveals a money trail and path of intrigue later used by the CIA in its covert political work.

Making the World Safe for Investment

Click to enlarge.
To the plotters it appeared that President Roosevelt had betrayed his class when he exerted his energies to benefit unemployed and impoverished citizens (even labor unions!) at the expense of the business and banking clientele who had garnered the funds to finance his election. John W. Davis, the personal attorney of J.P. “Jack” Morgan, Jr., was instrumental in setting up the legal framework to finance a propaganda-intelligence network, attempting, if not to gain control of the executive branch of government, at the very least to convince the President to pay attention to the financial elite.

Davis' boss, Jack Morgan, Jr.
In August of 1934, shortly after General Butler was clued that such an organization would appear, Davis incorporated the American Liberty Lobby. MacGuire's boss, Grayson Mallet-Prevost Murphy, a Guaranty Trust vice-president,  served as the Lobby's treasurer, and other members included the elite of the General Motors-DuPont structure. The same men had been involved in the Association against the Prohibition Amendment (AAPA), used by Democratic Party chairman John J. Raskob to repeal Prohibition. (6) In 1928, Murphy's name was listed as a member of AAPA.(7)

MacGuire, who was on the payroll of Murphy's brokerage office, G. M-P Murphy & Co., had not only offered eighteen $1,000 bills to Butler (which were rejected), but had also promised to present the General as keynote speaker at an upcoming American Legion convention in Chicago, where a speech written by John W. Davis about the need to return to the gold standard would be made available for him to read. MacGuire boasted that his boss, Murphy, had donated $125,000 to found the veterans’ group, ostensibly designed along a similar pattern observed in Europe (notably in Mussolini's Italy), which, he bragged, was completely within their control.

Grayson M.-P. Murphy and the
Bankers’ intelligence network

Murphy, who graduated from West Point in 1903 with General Hugh S. Johnson of the NRA, had first attended the William Penn Charter School in Philadelphia and the Quakers' Haverford College. During his Army stint he was in the Military Intelligence Division--an elite intelligence group set up during the Spanish-American War. He had also been one of two men selected by Secretary of State John Hay, under instructions from President Theodore Roosevelt, for a secret mission to “gather information in South American countries which might play a role should the United States involve itself in conflict within the Gulf of Mexico or the Caribbean.” (8)  Acting both as a military attaché and as a consulate aide, Murphy traveled incognito to Venezuela and returned to brief the President personally. (9)

What we can glean from the remainder of his career—including his role in the 1934 plot—reveals much about America’s incipient intelligence organization before either the Office of Strategic Services or Central Intelligence Agency were formed.
G.M-P Murphy & Co., formed in 1907, specialized in the preserving assets of bankrupt companies for the benefit of creditors, working on commissions paid to him by  creditors desiring to get possession of assets held as security for defaulted loans. Gerald MacGuire, at the time he approached Gen. Butler, sold bonds for the Murphy company, and it is clear from testimony given before the Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities that MacGuire was
“continuously on the payroll of G.M.P. Murphy & Co., regardless as to whether he was making tours of inspection at the expense of Clark or whatever he was doing.” (10)
Ostensibly, MacGuire’s numerous travel expenses were paid by an organization called the Committee for a Sound Dollar and Sound Currency, Inc. (whose members, MacGuire claimed, included both Grayson Murphy and Robert Sterling Clark. Clark undoubtedly had access to a huge pool of cash set aside to promote the the American Legion's Chicago convention, for which he tried unsuccessfully to recruit General Butler as a speaker. (11) The American Legion’s purposes apparently coincided with those of MacGuire’s employer, Grayson Murphy, whose company’s $125,000 donation had financed the Legion’s incorporation.

Unless Murphy’s company was a mere cover for intelligence work, it is difficult to understand what MacGuire contributed to the company which paid him to travel throughout Europe, studying the role military groups had played in setting up Fascist governments in Spain, Italy and Vischy France. Murphy’s background, besides heading "protective committees" to foreclose on creditors’ interests in collateral on existing loans, was military intelligence and planning of secret military operations--forerunner to the role of today's CIA. He was part of a super-secret intelligence organization within the military, funded by the American Red Cross and coordinated by Major General Ralph H. Van Deman—General Pershing's senior intelligence officer and Chief of Allied Counterintelligence.

Beginning in 1917 Murphy, as an appointee of President Wilson, worked for the Red Cross in France and as an officer in the Army:
“Douglas MacArthur took over the brigade and received his first general's star. … The 42nd also got a new G3, Major Grayson M.P. Murphy, a West Point graduate who had left the army to pursue a very successful career in finance and banking. Murphy had come to France as head of the American Red Cross, and in June 1917, went with Pershing to Chaumont as a part of the permanent staff of AEF Headquarters. While on Pershing's staff, Murphy coordinated Red Cross activities with the army's medical service in the field. His West Point background and good service in the infantry in the Philippines impressed Pershing enough to send him to the 42nd Division in the critical position of G3 [operations and planning].” (12)
“Your Servant—The Red Cross”

According to an article styled “Your Servant—The Red Cross” by Geddes Smith, published in The Independent in 1917, the work performed by the Red Cross War Council in World War I closely resembled contemporary services provided under contracts awarded to Halliburton, a profit-making corporation, for the soldiers in Iraq. Geddes describes those services as follows:
“The Red Cross is servicing France. [We only hope no pun was intended!] The War Council, thru its commissioners, asked France what immediate service was most wanted. ‘Give us canteens,’ was the answer…. The word canteen … means, first, a field kitchen close behind the first line of trenches from which hot coffee and tea … and cold lemonade and such drinks are served out to fighting men…. It means, also, an outpost of civilization—a place where a poilu leaving the front can … shave and wash his mud-stained body and disinfect his germ-laden clothing…” (13)
Red Cross services also included the provision of food supplies, linens and clothing for persons left homeless by the war, infirmaries and rest-stations for soldiers, all of which were paid for out of donations collected by the Red Cross from the general public—estimated at $100,000,000. Today Halliburton is paid by a combination of corporate profits and American tax dollars to provide the same types of services for America’s armed forces.

Rambling with Wild Bill Donovan

Within a year after the war’s end, Murphy returned again to Europe with a man who was to become the first American head of a civilian intelligence organization in America, William J. Donovan. According to Donovan’s biographer, the job Donovan and Murphy performed was to gather information concerning a proposed Morgan bank bond issue for a consortium of capitalists who wanted statistics from Europe before these bankers, lawyers and investors underwrote, bought or sold bonds for European reconstruction; the names of the capitalists, however, were not disclosed. (14)  Donovan and Murphy “toured Europe together to make their own intelligence estimates and establish a private intelligence network to keep them and like-minded members of America’s ‘peacetime’ intelligence subculture advised of changes in Europe.” (15)

Morgan Syndicate

Raskob with his boss, Du Pont
FDR had been elected in 1932 with financial and political assistance from corporations such as General Motors, then in control of major shareholders John J. Raskob and Pierre and Lammot Du Pont, whose desire was to use war-generated profits to diversify and consolidate their corporate holdings. That ambition was consistent with the Morgan banking network's goals, with which General Motors had long been affiliated.

Professor Carroll Quigley, of the opinion that there were different factions within the Morgan bank establishment, stated in his book Tragedy and Hope:
“To Morgan all political parties were simply organizations to be used, and the firm always was careful to keep a foot in all camps. Morgan himself, Dwight Morrow, and other partners were allied with Republicans; Russell C. Leffingwell was allied with the Democrats; Grayson Murphy was allied with the extreme Right; and Thomas W. Lamont was allied with the Left.”  (16)
Thomas Lamont’s rise in influence within the bank followed the chairmanship of World War I head of the American Red Cross, Henry Pomeroy Davison, (17) whose banking career had begun in the Astor Bank, and who reared his sons (F. Trubee Davison and H.P., Jr.) at Locust Valley, Long Island, New York, near the estate of Robert S. Lovett. Lamont's "left-leaning tendencies" caused concern among members of the more conservative faction, who detested the role Leffingwell and Lamont had played in advising FDR to take the dollar off the gold standard. In response to removal of the gold backing on the dollar, Roosevelt’s own budget director, Lewis W. Douglas (who was brother-in-law of Rockefellers' attorney John J. McCloy), predicted the end of Western Civilization, while Montagu Norman of the Bank of England (also a Brown Brothers partner) feared the entire world would plunge into bankruptcy. (18)

These apocalyptic opinions reflect also the sentiments of the Anglo-American political philosophy supported by the same bankers who desired to rid the world of anti-capitalism—any tendencies leading to labor unrest and anarchy—which they equated with Communism. The British Foreign Secretary in 1925, Austen Chamberlain, for example, had commented:
“If I ever had to choose in my own country between anarchy and dictatorship, I expect I should be on the side of the dictator.” (19)
Butler never met with Grayson Murphy, though, upon his insistence that he be introduced to one of MacGuire’s principals in the plot, he was paid a visit from Robert Sterling Clark, a multimillionaire, deprecatingly dubbed “the millionaire lieutenant” during the war. A grandson of Edward Clark, attorney for and partner of Isaac Singer, inventor of the sewing machine, Robert S. Clark was also one of three sons of Alfred Corning Clark, who had served as Singer’s president until his death in 1896. The Clark family involvement in the scheme adds another layer of depth and texture to a tapestry woven by an assortment of banking families who were working behind the scenes in 1934 to wrest control of America’s central bank out of "liberal" hands and place it within those of an Anglo-American military- fascist elite.

Six years after Alfred Corning Clark died, his widow married the Right Rev. Henry Codman Potter, Episcopal Bishop of New York, who serves as a link between Clark and an offshoot of the family of Alexander Brown of Baltimore, the oldest merchant banking family in America. 

Brown Brothers of New York is the bank with which President George H.W. Bush’s father was a partner after its merger with the investment banks of the sons of robber baron E.H. Harriman in 1926.


1. Quincy Howe, England Expects Every American To Do His Duty (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1937), 198.
2. The quotes from MacGuire were obtained from Wikisource website.
3. Retired General Johnson (West Point Class of 1903) was then administrator of the National Recovery Administration. Time magazine (October 31, 1934) reported: “Each and every reporter at Hyde Park was aware that General Hugh Samuel Johnson had at last cooked his goose with the President. In his speech on the textile strike week before, NRA’s Johnson had denounced the strikers in such violent terms that Labor swore it would have the General’s scalp. In the same address General Johnson sealed his official doom, as far as the President was concerned, when he said: ‘During the whole intense [NRA] experience I have been in constant touch with that old counselor, Judge Louis Brandeis. As you know, he thinks that anything that is too big is bound to be wrong. He thinks NRA is too big, and I agree with him.’ Vastly displeased was the President with General Johnson’s public claim to intellectual kinship with Supreme Court Justice Brandeis, before whom the National Recovery Act must sooner or later come for adjudication.”
     Time had first reported on Johnson’s background as follows: “He set up the General Staff's Purchase. Storage and Traffic Division to eliminate competitive government buying, sat on the War Industries Board with Bernard Mannes Baruch. Resigning from the army in 1919 as a Brigadier General, he joined the Moline (Ill.) Plow Co. of which George Nelson Peek, new administrator of the Farm Relief Act, was president. In 1927 he went to Mr. Baruch at No. 120 Broadway as economic expert and factfinder. Mr. Baruch lent him to President Roosevelt to help draft the Industrial Recovery Act.” Time (May 29, 1933).
4. “America's Armed Forces: Part 2—In Time of Peace: The Army,” Common Sense (October 1935), page 8.
5. Jules Archer, The Plot To Seize The White House (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1973).
6. The correlation between the two committees is shown in an article by David Kyvig at the website maintained by the Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade (COAT).
7. The entire list of the membership was published by the Washington Post in 1928 under a front-page headline “New Wet Board’s Purpose Mystery to Party Leaders.” Washington Post (April 23, 1928), 1.
The names listed were determined by the Post to be disproportionately Republicans, who would later abandon Herbert Hoover in order to elect Franklin Roosevelt. Besides Murphy, the name of George H. Walker (grandfather of the first President Bush) was also listed. At that time he was employed by W.A. Harriman & Co., which in 1931 was to merge with the established private banking firm of Brown Brothers & Co., of which Bank of England chairman Montagu Norman was a partner.
8. William R. Corson, The Armies of Ignorance: The Rise of the American Intelligence Empire (New York: The Dial Press/James Wade, 1967), 597.
9. This trip to Venezuela occurred at the same time that an international lawyer who was a leader in the Pan-American Society, Dr. Severo Mallet-Prevost of Philadelphia (son of Dr. Grayson Mallet-Prevost), sailed to Venezuela in order to promote a loan to be made by Speyer & Co. It appears that Dr. Mallet-Prevost was Murphy’s uncle.
10. The transcript of the hearings of the Committee, often referred to as HUAC or the “MacCormack-Dickstein Committee,” can be found online in three segments, together with Smedley Butler’s brochure, War Is a Racket and other materials about the plot.
11. The Congressional Committee Report, however, upon examining the membership list, did not find those names. See Report of Congressional House Special Committee on Un-American Activities, 73rd Congress, 2d Session (New York: November 24, 1934). Also see the chapter entitled “Wall Street Buys the New Deal,” in Antony C. Sutton, Wall Street and FDR (New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House Publishers, 1975). Had Butler agreed to speak at the convention, he would have received no less than $18,000 in cash for reading a speech written by John W. Davis, demanding a return to the gold standard.
12. James J. Cooke, The Rainbow Division in the Great War, 1917-1919 (Praeger Publishers, 1994), 133, citing as source: John J. Pershing, My Experiences in the World War (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1931), Vol. 1, 71, 108, 280. The author also cites fascinating excerpts from General Patton’s diary relating run-ins he encountered with Murphy: “Maj [sic] Murphy told me he could not put smoke in plan as stencil was already cut. The biggest fool remark I ever heard showing just what an S.O.B. the late chief of Red Cross is.” Cooke, 148, quoting from Martin Bluenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1885- 1940, Vol. 2 (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co., 1972), 628.
13. Geddes Smith, “Your Servant—The Red Cross,” The Independent; 91, 3590 (September 22, 1917), 462.
14. Richard Dunlop, Donovan: America’s Master Spy (Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1982), 137. We can reconstruct the names of those investors were by examining the bond issues underwritten immediately after their summer tour in 1920.
15. William R. Corson, The Armies of Ignorance, op. cit., 598.
16. Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1966), 945.
17. “Davison …conceived the plan which resulted in the formation of the Bankers' Trust Company, intended to serve as a depository for the funds of national banks and insurance companies. In 1902 George F. Baker and Francis L. Hine of the First National Bank invited him to become vice-president and director. There he soon won recognition from J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr., who frequently consulted him, especially in the monetary crisis of 1907, when Davison had an important part in determining the action of New York banks. During the next year he joined the Monetary Commission headed by Senator Aldrich and in the capacity of banking expert with that commission he visited France, Germany, and England. He then acquainted himself with the prevailing European idea of a flexible national currency. In association with Senator Aldrich, Paul M. Warburg, Frank A. Vanderlip, and A. Piatt Andrew, he took part in drawing up the ‘Jekyl Island’ report that led to the crystallization of sentiment resulting in the creation of the Federal Reserve System. Having become a partner in J. P. Morgan & Company, he served with distinction in 1910 as chairman of the Six-Power Chinese Loan Conference at Paris.”  Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936.
18. Ron Chernow, The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1990), 358-359.
19. Quoted in Clement Leibovitz and Alvin Finkel, The Chamberlain-Hitler Collusion (UK: Merlin Press Ltd., 1997), 39.
20. Published by World Peace Foundation (1927), 718.